The results were analysed via covariance analysis. [Table 1] shows the descriptive results about the scores of marital conflict in experiment and control group.
The results of [Table 1] showed that there is a significant difference between various levels of test variable (pre-test and post-test).
Brief solution-focused family therapy approach is effective on reduction of the marital conflicts of the male and female susceptible to divorce [Table 2].
The results of the first hypothesis about the effect of brief solution-focused couple therapy on the reduction of marital conflict of the couples are shown in [Table 3].
Table 3: The results of covariance analysis to compare the mean of the residual scores of marital conflict in team membership
Brief solution-focused family therapy approach is effective on marital conflicts dimensions of the male and female susceptible to divorce.
After the control of the scores of pre-test of the result of covariance analysis showed that there is significant difference between two groups in the mean of marital conflict (F = 24.089, P = 0.001) and the effect of 0.45 showed the difference between the mean of the scores of two groups of independent variable (solution-focused treatment) and it is concluded that brief solution-focused couple therapy was effective on reduction of total score of marital conflict of the couples. The results of the subscales of marital conflict are shown in [Table 4].
Table 4: The results of covariance analysis of the mean of the residual scores of the dimensions of marital conflict scale
The results of the table showed that brief couple therapy is effective on all subscales of marital conflict (P = 0.01) and the effect on reduced cooperation (0.21), reduced sexual intercourse (0.63), increased emotional reactions (0.32), increased child support (0.43), increased personal relationships with relatives (0.72), reduced family relationship with the spouse’s relatives (0.57), separating finances (0.71), and reduction of effective communication (0.56). Statistical power was high in all the above dimensions and it showed that the sample size was adequate in the present study.
The results of the present study showed that brief solution-focused couple therapy was effective on marital conflict and its dimensions (P < 0.001). Watsel, Prest and Zimerman (1997, cited in Nazari and Soleimani, 2007) applied dyadic adjustment scale to evaluate the changes in couples relation and the scores in the couples’ condition scale as pre-test and post-test showed the reduction of couple’s divorce.
The results of the analysis showed that brief solution-focused treatment improved the sexual relationship of the couples as 0.63. The results of the study are consistent with the study of Saeidi. By the improvement of emotional relation of the couples, it can be expected that their sexual intercourse was improved. The brief solution-focused treatment improved the sexual issues between the couples. The solution-focused treatment improved the 0.72 of the relation with the relatives and friends of the spouse. The couples should consider the border between themselves and others (the main family and friends). These borders considered the couples a separate system of other systems and they are flexible borders and the couples can use the recommendations of the main family. This is done by some techniques as glass house metaphor and improving the relation with the spouse family.
The treatment improved as (0.56) the effective communication of the couples. Mudd in a study titled ‘solution-focused treatment and training communication skills’ showed that solution-focused approach increases communicative skills. The result of the present study is consisting with the study of Mudd. Solution-focused treatment was effective on reduced cooperation of the couples (0.20). It can be said that the couples who participated in solution-focused counselling reached higher level of cooperation skill compared to control group. The results were consistent with the results of the study performed by Moore, who stated that the subjects participating in solution-focused sessions solved their interpersonal problems by their capabilities.
Solution-focused couple therapy had a positive effect on separating finances. One of the determining factors of power in the family is money. When there is conflict, the couples have different views about spending money, and one of them tries to spend much money (woman) and the man tries to be cautious about the expenditure. It does not seem that solution-focused treatment directly affected the increase of the participation of the couples in economic affairs of the house. It can be said that when the couples’ relation is improved, the money is spent fairly, and they try to agree on spending the money.
A solution-focused approach based on Lee results can be applied for the experts with various experience level and one member instead of the whole family. This characteristic of the solution-focused counsellor is an advantage compared to the view of family therapy that emphasize on the presence of all family members in counselling sessions.
The results of the present study were consistent with the results presented by O’Hanlon and Weiner-Davis, showing that the subjects participating in solution-focused counselling revealed better methods to cope with the emotional issues compared to control group.
The results of the present study were consistent with the results of Lamber et al. They found that the clients in the study could cope with the adjustment problems, drug abuse and anxiety compared to the control group.
Furthermore, the results of the present study were consistent with the results of the study performed by Conoley, Graham, New, Craig, Opry, Cardin, Brossart and Parker (2003, cited in Kuri, 2009). They found that the parents and the students participating in the solution-focused counselling showed less problematic behaviours and could reduce their behavioural problems.
As most of the couples who referred to counselling centre and most of the couples who have problems in their relations but they do not admit the centres are failed in solving their problems and creating problem-solving skills among the couples can prevent many conflicts. One of the most important skills being proved as life skills from the World Health Organization is ‘problem-solving skill’. Problem-solving training is of great importance as one of the life skills, and this technique is applied mostly in solution-focused approach. By various techniques of this approach, we can help the couples with their problems and their solutions and improve their marital satisfaction. This approach is effective due to the short duration of the sessions in creating the couples cooperation.
- Gottman JM. The Marriage Clinic: A Scientifically Based Marital Therapy. New York: W. W. Norton; 1999. Back to cited text no. 1
- Sinha P, Mukerjec N. Marital adjustment space orientation. J Soc Psychol 1990;130:633-9. Back to cited text no. 2
- Rice JK. Cross-cultural parsectiveson divorce and family life cycle (invited address). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 2000. Back to cited text no. 3
- Howard J. Markman, Renick MJ, Floyd FJ, Stanley SM, Clements M. Preventing marital distress through communication and conflict management training. J Clin Psychol 1993;61:70-7. Back to cited text no. 4
- Kaslow FW. Divorce: An evolutionary process of change in family system. J Divorce 1984;7:21-39. Back to cited text no. 5
- Myers DG. Exploring Social, Psychology. Boston: McGraw Hill; 2000. p. 284. Back to cited text no. 6
- Kitson GC, Babri KB, Roach MJ. Who divorces and why: A review. J Fam Issues 1985;6:255-93. Back to cited text no. 7
- Goldenberg I, Goldenberg H. Family Therapy; Translators (Brovati S, Naghshbandi, Arjmand). Tehran: Psychology Press; 2002. p. 65. Back to cited text no. 8
- de Shazer S. Muddles, bewilderment, and practice theory. Fam Process 1991;30:453-8. Back to cited text no. 9
- Nazari AM. Couple’s Therapy, Family Therapy Principles. Tehran: Science Publications; 2007. Back to cited text no. 10
- Rusbult CE. A longitudinal test of the investment model: The development (and deterioration) of satisfaction and commitment in heterosexual involvements. J Pers Soc Psychol 1986;45:101-17. Back to cited text no. 11
- Sanaei MB. Assessment Family. Tehran: The Institute’s Beaasat; 2009. p. 100. Back to cited text no. 12
- Nazari AM, Soleymani A. Factor Analysais Questionnaire Marital Satisfaction Snayder. Thesis.unpub: Tehran Teacher Training University; 2003. Back to cited text no. 13
- Saeidi L. The effectiveness of brief solution-focused approach on couples’ conflict decrease. New Res Consult 2006;20:35. Back to cited text no. 14
- Mudd J. Solution-Focused Therapy and Communication Skills Training; An Intergraded Approach to Couple Therapy. Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Virgina Polytechnics Institute and State University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Science; 2000. Back to cited text no. 15
- Moore S. Sociology Alive. Cheltenham, Great Britain: Nelson Thornes Ltd; 1st edition. 1987. p. 121. Back to cited text no. 16
- Lee MY. A study of solution-focused brief family therapy: Outcomes and Issue. Am J Fam Ther 1997;25:1-70. Back to cited text no. 17
- O’Hanlon WH, Weiner-Davis M. In Search of Solution: A New Direction in Psychotherapy. New York: Norton; 1989. Back to cited text no. 18
- Lamber MJ, Okiisgi JC, Finch AE, Johnson LD. Outcome assessment: From conceptualization to implementation. Prof Psychol Res Pr 1998;29:63-70. Back to cited text no. 19
- Correy S. New N. Y law protects assessing divorce. Boston: Lawyers USA; 2009. p. 198. Back to cited text no. 20